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The carefully arranged reunion of Ruy Pérez with his brother, only after he has assured himself that brother Juan will not be offended by his poverty, offers a sharp contrast to the spontaneous, joyful recognition and embrace of one of the other Christians in the escape party with his uncle, who happens to be one of the horsemen patrolling the coast where the group lands near Vélez Málaga (I, 512). This contrast serves to heighten our perception of the inner tensions of the Pérez de Viedma family. (N. from the A.)



Márquez, Personajes y temas..., pp. 98-99; Maravall: «En el relato del cautivo vemos volver pobre al que escogió la carrera de las armas, mientras que su hermano, el oidor, que se dedicó a letrado, crece en bienes y consideración». Utopía y contrautopía en el «Quijote» (Santiago de Compostela: Pico Sacro, 1976), p. 50. (N. from the A.)



He thus goes chronologically beyond the terms of the debate as it existed in the late fifteenth century, when the letrados had emerged as a class but when armas were still considered to be the special preserve of a mostly unlettered warrior nobility. The debate at that time, as Castro has shown, involved an ethnic clash between Old Christian linajudos and the emerging royal bureaucracy composed principally of conversos. The intra-family tensions of the Pérez de Viedma, however, go beyond caste conflict, unless the family is considered a Cervantine emblematic representation of the entire society. For a discussion of the historical particulars of the debate, see Peter Russell, «Arms versus Letters: Toward a definition of Spanish Fifteenth-Century Humanism», in Aspects of the Renaissance: A Symposium, ed. Archibald R. Lewis (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1967), pp. 47-48; also the texts adduced by Nicholas G. Round, «Renaissance Culture and Its Opponents in Fifteenth-Century Castile», Modern Language Review, 57 (1962), 204-15. (N. from the A.)



For a reaction to this piece, see Cesáreo Bandera, «Healthy Bodies in Not-So-Healthy Minds», Cervantes 2.2 (1982): 165-70. For Arthur Efron's response, see «On Some Central Issues in Quixote Criticism: Society and the Sexual Body», Cervantes 2.2(1982): 171-80. -F.J. (N. from the E.)



Revised from a presentation given at the December, 1981, MLA Convention, in New York. After years of work on the Quijote, I learned much of what the present paper has to say in a graduate seminar I gave on satire, SUNY-Buffalo, 1981, in the Department of English. My thanks to Ann Skrzec, Joe Moxley, Paul Jayes, Elizabeth Sommers, Roberta Hooks, Margaret Mariacher, and Cass Clarke, the members of that seminar. (N. from the A.)



Cervantes, The Adventures of Don Quixote, trans. J. M. Cohen (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1950), p. 778. Further references to this edition will be given parenthetically. In several instances I have also inserted the Spanish original, as a way of keeping in touch with Cervantes' wording. (N. from the A.)



Don Quixote and the Dulcineated World (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971). (N. from the A.)



See my «The Problem of Don Quixote's Rage», Denver Quarterly 16 (Fall, 1981), 29-46. (N. from the A.)



Quoted from the Samuel Putnam translation, The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote de la Mancha (New York: Viking Press, 1949), p. 771, with my own paraphrase, of: «esto es como aquello que dicen: 'en priesa me vees, y doncellez me demandas!' ¿Ahora que tengo de ir sentado en una tabla rasa, quiere vuesa merced que me lastime las posas?» (N. from the A.)



Cohen trans., p. 744. Putnam, p. 745, and the new Norton Critical Edition (Ormsby trans., revised, ed. by Joseph R. Jones and Kenneth Douglas; New York: W. W. Norton, 1981) p. 625, translate «el alma» as «heart». But why? (N. from the A.)