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Ed. J. B. Avalle-Arce (Madrid: Castalia, 1969), p. 178. (N. del A.)



Ver Miguel de Unamuno, Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (Bs. As.: Espasa Calpe, 1945), pp. 39-40. (N. del A.)



Eugenio Asensio, «Entremeses», in Suma cervantina, ed. J. B. Avalle-Arce and E. C. Riley (London: Tamesis, 1973), pp. 190-91. See also his Itinerario del entremés (Madrid: Gredos, 1965), p. 109, where he offers only two possible readings. (N. from the A.)



Robert Marrast, «Intermèdes», in Théâtre espagnol du XVIe siècle, ed. Robert Marrast (Paris: Gallimard, 1983), p. 1057. The interplay of reality and illusion is also discussed in Joaquín Casalduero, Sentido y forma del teatro de Cervantes (Madrid: Gredos, 1966), pp. 205-08; Jean Canavaggio, «Variations cervantines sur le thème du Théâtre au théâtre», Revue des Sciences Humaines, 37 (1972), 53-68, and again in his Cervantès dramaturge: un théâtre à naître (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1977), pp. 375-77. (N. from the A.)



Marcel Bataillon, «Ulenspiegl y el Retablo de las maravillas de Cervantes», in Homenaje a J. A. Van Praag, ed. L. J. Veen (Amsterdam, 1957), pp. 16-21; rpt. in his Varia lección de clásicos españoles (Madrid: Gredos, 1964), pp. 260-67; Isaías Lerner, «Notas para el Entremés del Retablo de las Maravillas: Fuente y recreación», in Estudios de literatura española ofrecidos a Marcos A. Morínigo (Madrid: Insula, 1971), pp. 37-55. In Cervantes: raíces folklóricas (Madrid: Gredos, 1976), pp. 35-214, Maurice Molho explores the folk traditions exhaustively, and also proposes an ingenious psychosociological reading of the play. (N. from the A.)



Sebastián de Covarruvias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española [1611], ed. Martín de Riquer (Barcelona: Horta, 1943), p. 907. See also J. E. Varey, Historia de los títeres en España (Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1957); Cervantes' entremés is discussed on pp. 232-37. (N. from the A.)



Eugenio Asensio, «Introducción», in his edition of Cervantes' Entremeses (Madrid: Castalia, 1971), p. 18. Quotations from El retablo de las maravillas are from this edition. (N. from the A.)



P. 177. This detail is clear evidence that the fictional spectators' critical sense has been completely undermined by Chanfalla's fiction: for Christian believers, whether «Old» or «New», all mice are direct descendants of the pair Noah received into the ark. Lerner notes only the incongruity of Chanfalla's comment: «como si otra fuera la posibilidad» (p. 45). (N. from the A.)



«Really» is necessarily an ambiguous adverb in a discussion of the compounded fiction of this work. The fact is, as Marrast points out, that Cervantes intentionally substituted the name Herodías for that of Salomé: «ces 'vieux chrétiens' se ridiculisent un peu plus en ne la [cette substitution de noms] relevant pas, ajoutant l'ignorance à la sotte vanité» (p. 1076). But, as we shall see further on, the name of Herodias is actually called for by the play's thematic sense. (N. from the A.)



Marrast, p. 1075. See also Bataillon's account of the Inquisition proceedings against the false Juan de Espera en Dios, in Varia lección, p. 119 and note 51. (N. from the A.)